Violent protest is used to claim or consolidate power and authority while furthering political and economic interests.
Country's president has apologised for this week's violence as army joined police in seeking to restore calm. Looming in the horizon is an election.
Rwandans in Zambia told to avoid risks after looting, as president Lungu condemns ‘acts of murder’ in riots
The riots have reportedly claimed five lives so far of suspects beaten and burnt to death
The plight of asylum seekers has been in the spotlight following xenophobic attacks in the country earlier this year.
Africans, who were the main target of the attacks, account for more than 70% of visitors to the country.
This kind of hatred of fellow Africans, entrenched even in boardrooms, can only lead to more frightening social disasters.
The two countries have had a frosty relationship during Goodluck Jonathan’s term in office.
S. Africa’s problem? A ‘cappuccino economy - white cream over a large black mass, with some chocolate sprinkled on top’
Inequality is worse today than in 1994 at apartheid’s end, and poverty rates remain stubbornly high.
Mugabe says South Africa isn’t 'heaven', and 'Africans in the country are still very low', as whites live better
“People must get back to their own country. We should do whatever we can to prevent more people going into South Africa", says veteran leader.
On xenophobic attacks, Zuma asks Africa: ‘Why are their citizens not in their countries and are in South Africa?’
Zuma paid tribute to the three South Africans who were killed in the attacks in Durban - but not to the Somalis and Ethiopians who died.
When two giants fight - Nigeria seeks to seize advantage on a S. Africa whose image is soiled by xenophobic attacks
The clash of two brands of regional "exceptionalism" is providing continental intrigue.
We will defeat xenophobia like we defeated apartheid, tens of thousands of Johannesburg marchers say
Many immigrants have been forced to flee their homes and abandon their small shops as marauding mobs hunted down foreigners at night.
Studies have found S. Africa exhibits levels of intolerance and hostility to outsiders unlike virtually anything seen in other parts of the world.
When it rains it pours: Under attack by xenophobic mobs, immigrants face S. African police harassment
Migrants are often detained for longer than the legal 120-day limit – or can bribe their way out.
From a position of strength, post-apartheid South Africa has steadily lost its shine. It may need saving once again.
African nations close ranks against South Africa after week of horror xenophobic attacks, criticism gets very loud
Diplomatic tensions simmer as several countries demand decisive action over attacks on their nationals.
No end in sight to S.African xenophobic attacks; Tutu says fabric of the nation 'splitting at the seams'
Twelve people arrested overnight as as anti-foreigner attacks spread to parts of downtown Johannesburg,
The false and dangerous stereotypes we hold about other Africans make us no different from our apartheid oppressors.
Contradictory messages, inertia, a lack of condemnation and inaction have all featured in the last week, further stoking the violence.